HISTORY OF AUSTRIA
This is an excerpt from an excellent article on Austrian history, found on Wikipedia.
"Human habitation of current Austria can be traced back to the first farming communities of the early Stone Age (Paleolithic era). In the late Iron Age it was occupied by a Celtic culture (ca. 800 BCE), the first organised nation state being the Celtic Kingdom of Noricum dating from ca. 800–400 BCE. This subsequently became incorporated into the Roman Empire's lands to the south of the Danube at the end of the first century BC, and was incorporated as the Province of Noricum around 40 AD. The most important Roman settlement was that at Carnuntum. Later, in the sixth century, another Celto-Germanic people, the Bavarii occupied these lands until it fell under the Frankish Empire in the ninth century. Around 800 AD Charlemagne established the outpost of Avar March (Awarenmark) in what is now Lower Austria, to hold back advances from Slavs and Avars from the East."